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Direct comparison of calculated hip joint contact forces with those measured using instrumented implants. An evaluation of a three-dimensional mathematical model of the lower limb

Stansfield, B.W. and Nicol, A.C. and Paul, J.P. and Kelly, I.G. and Graichen, F. and Bergmann, G. (2003) Direct comparison of calculated hip joint contact forces with those measured using instrumented implants. An evaluation of a three-dimensional mathematical model of the lower limb. Journal of Biomechanics, 36 (7). pp. 929-936. ISSN 0021-9290

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Abstract

Characterisation of hip joint contact forces is essential for the definition of hip joint prosthesis design requirements. In vivo hip joint contact force measurements have been made using instrumented hip joint prostheses. However, to allow determination of the range of values of joint contact force and their directions relative to anatomical structures in a range of subject groups sufficient to form an agreed data base it is necessary to adopt a different approach without the use of an implanted transducer. The use of mathematical models of the lower limb to examine the forces in soft tissues and at the joints has provided valuable insight into internal loading conditions. Several authors have proposed mathematical musculo-skeletal models. However, there have been only limited attempts at validation of these models. It is possible to use the results of in vivo force measurements from instrumented prostheses to validate the results calculated using the mathematical models. In this study two subjects with instrumented hip joint prostheses were studied. Forces at the hip joints were calculated using a three-dimensional model of the leg. Walking at slow, normal and fast speeds (0.97-2.01m/s), weight transfer from two to one leg and back again, and sit to stand were studied. Direct comparisons were made between the 'gold standard' measured hip joint contact forces and the calculated forces. There was general agreement between the calculated and measured forces in both pattern and magnitude. There were, however, discrepancies. Reasons for these differences in results are discussed and possible model developments suggested.