Ekert, A and Ericsson, M and Hayden, P and Inamori, H and Jones, J A and Oi, D K L and Vedral, V (2000) Geometric quantum computation. Journal of Modern Optics, 47 (14-15). pp. 2501-2513. ISSN 0950-0340
We describe in detail a general strategy for implementing a conditional geometric phase between two spins. Combined with single-spin operations, this simple operation is a universal gate for quantum computation, in that any unitary transformation can be implemented with arbitrary precision using only single-spin operations and conditional phase shifts. Thus quantum geometrical phases can form the basis of any quantum computation. Moreover, as the induced conditional phase depends only on the geometry of the paths executed by the spins it is resilient to certain types of errors and offers the potential of a naturally fault-tolerant way of performing quantum computation.
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