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Extracellular actions of sphingosine 1-phosphate through endothelial differentiation gene products in mammalian cells: role in regulating proliferation and apoptosis

Pyne, S and Rakhit, S and Conway, A M and McKie, A and Darroch, P and Tate, R and Pyne, N (1999) Extracellular actions of sphingosine 1-phosphate through endothelial differentiation gene products in mammalian cells: role in regulating proliferation and apoptosis. Biochemical Society Transactions, 27 (4). pp. 404-409. ISSN 0300-5127

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Abstract

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (SIP) belongs to a group of platelet-derived lipid mediators that regulate cell differentiation, survival and proliferation. It is released from platelets after their activation with agents such as thrombin [l]. In addition, intracellular levels of S1 P are increased in several cell types in response to stimulation by a variety of agonists that include platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) [2,3], tumour necrosis factor 01 (TNFa), nerve growth factor (NGF), vitamin D,, carbachol (acting at M2 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors), protein kinases C activators (such as phorbol esters), CAMP elevating agents and the cross-linking of antigen to FcRl or FcyRl receptors. SIP is formed by the phosphorylation of sphingosine, which is catalysed by sphingosine kinase [4].