Picture of smart phone in human hand

World leading smartphone and mobile technology research at Strathclyde...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by University of Strathclyde researchers, including by Strathclyde researchers from the Department of Computer & Information Sciences involved in researching exciting new applications for mobile and smartphone technology. But the transformative application of mobile technologies is also the focus of research within disciplines as diverse as Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Marketing, Human Resource Management and Biomedical Enginering, among others.

Explore Strathclyde's Open Access research on smartphone technology now...

Detecting word substitutions in text

Fong, SeWong and Roussinov, Dmitri and Skillicorn, David (2008) Detecting word substitutions in text. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 20 (8). pp. 1067-1076.

[img]
Preview
PDF
TKDE_final.pdf - Preprint

Download (327kB) | Preview

Abstract

Searching for words on a watchlist is one way in which large-scale surveillance of communication can be done, for example in intelligence and counterterrorism settings. One obvious defense is to replace words that might attract attention to a message with other, more innocuous, words. For example, the sentence the attack will be tomorrow" might be altered to the complex will be tomorrow", since 'complex' is a word whose frequency is close to that of 'attack'. Such substitutions are readily detectable by humans since they do not make sense. We address the problem of detecting such substitutions automatically, by looking for discrepancies between words and their contexts, and using only syntactic information. We define a set of measures, each of which is quite weak, but which together produce per-sentence detection rates around 90% with false positive rates around 10%. Rules for combining persentence detection into per-message detection can reduce the false positive and false negative rates for messages to practical levels. We test the approach using sentences from the Enron email and Brown corpora, representing informal and formal text respectively.