Picture of two heads

Open Access research that challenges the mind...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by University of Strathclyde researchers, including those from the School of Psychological Sciences & Health - but also papers by researchers based within the Faculties of Science, Engineering, Humanities & Social Sciences, and from the Strathclyde Business School.

Discover more...

Detecting word substitutions in text

Fong, SeWong and Roussinov, Dmitri and Skillicorn, David (2008) Detecting word substitutions in text. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 20 (8). pp. 1067-1076.

TKDE_final.pdf - Preprint

Download (327kB) | Preview


Searching for words on a watchlist is one way in which large-scale surveillance of communication can be done, for example in intelligence and counterterrorism settings. One obvious defense is to replace words that might attract attention to a message with other, more innocuous, words. For example, the sentence the attack will be tomorrow" might be altered to the complex will be tomorrow", since 'complex' is a word whose frequency is close to that of 'attack'. Such substitutions are readily detectable by humans since they do not make sense. We address the problem of detecting such substitutions automatically, by looking for discrepancies between words and their contexts, and using only syntactic information. We define a set of measures, each of which is quite weak, but which together produce per-sentence detection rates around 90% with false positive rates around 10%. Rules for combining persentence detection into per-message detection can reduce the false positive and false negative rates for messages to practical levels. We test the approach using sentences from the Enron email and Brown corpora, representing informal and formal text respectively.