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The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde research outputs.

Strathprints serves world leading Open Access research by the University of Strathclyde, including research by the Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS), where research centres such as the Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioIC), the Cancer Research UK Formulation Unit, SeaBioTech and the Centre for Biophotonics are based.

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Solid-to-solid biocatalysis: thermodynamic feasibility and energy efficiency

Ulijn, R.V. and Halling, P.J. (2004) Solid-to-solid biocatalysis: thermodynamic feasibility and energy efficiency. Green Chemistry, 6 (9). pp. 488-496. ISSN 1463-9262

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Abstract

Enzymes can catalyse solid-to-solid condensation reactions in highly concentrated aqueous substrate suspensions. Reaction products precipitate from the reaction mixture and very high conversion yields can be obtained in low volume reactors. Solid-to-solid biocatalysis combines the advantages of using enzymes in aqueous media with the high conversion yields that are typically associated with non-aqueous biocatalysis. In this article, methods are presented for the calculation of the Gibbs free energy changes and heats of reaction of condensation reactions to form amides. The overall enthalpy change of the enzymatic reaction was compared to that of the conventional chemical methods and it was found that the enzymatic reaction produces a third of the heat with better atom efficiency.