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Sphingosine 1 phosphate signalling in cancer

Pyne, N. J. and Tonelli, F. and Lim, K. G. and Long, J. S. and Edwards, J. and Pyne, S. (2012) Sphingosine 1 phosphate signalling in cancer. Biochemical Society Transactions, 40 (1). pp. 94-100. ISSN 0300-5127

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There is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating a critical role for the bioactive lipid S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) in cancer. S1P is synthesized and metabolized by a number of enzymes, including sphingosine kinase, S1P lyase and S1P phosphatases. S1P binds to cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors (S1P1–S1P5) to elicit cell responses and can also regulate, by direct binding, a number of intracellular targets such as HDAC (histone deacetylase) 1/2 to induce epigenetic regulation. S1P is involved in cancer progression including cell transformation/oncogenesis, cell survival/apoptosis, cell migration/metastasis and tumour microenvironment neovascularization. In the present paper, we describe our research findings regarding the correlation of sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P receptor expression in tumours with clinical outcome and we define some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P receptors in the formation of a cancer cell migratory phenotype. The role of sphingosine kinase 1 in the acquisition of chemotherapeutic resistance and the interaction of S1P receptors with oncogenes such as HER2 is also reviewed. We also discuss novel aspects of the use of small-molecule inhibitors of sphingosine kinase 1 in terms of allosterism, ubiquitin–proteasomal degradation of sphingosine kinase 1 and anticancer activity. Finally, we describe how S1P receptor-modulating agents abrogate S1P receptor–receptor tyrosine kinase interactions, with potential to inhibit growth-factor-dependent cancer progression.