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Tungsten : an option for divertor and main chamber plasma facing components in future fusion devices

Neu, R. and Dux, R. and Kallenbach, A. and Putterich, T. and Balden, M. and Fuchs, J.C. and Herrmann, A. and Maggi, C.F. and O'Mullane, M. and team, ASDEX Upgrade (2005) Tungsten : an option for divertor and main chamber plasma facing components in future fusion devices. Nuclear Fusion, 45 (3). pp. 209-218. ISSN 0029-5515

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The tungsten programme in ASDEX Upgrade is pursued towards a full high-Z device. The spectroscopic diagnostic of W has been extended and refined and the cooling factor of W has been re-evaluated. The W coated surfaces now represent a fraction of 65% of all plasma facing components (24.8 m(2)). The only two major components that are not yet coated are the strikepoint region of the lower divertor as well as the limiters at the low field side. While extending the W surfaces, the W concentration and the discharge behaviour have changed gradually pointing to critical issues when operating with a W wall: anomalous transport in the plasma centre should not be too low, otherwise neoclassical accumulation can occur. One very successful remedy is the addition of central RF heating at the 20-30% level. Regimes with low ELM activity show increased impurity concentration over the whole plasma radius. These discharges can be cured by increasing the ELM frequency through pellet ELM pacemaking or by higher heating power. Moderate gas puffing also mitigates the impurity influx and penetration, however, at the expense of lower confinement. The erosion yield at the low field side guard limiter can be as high as 10(-3) and fast particle losses from NBI were identified to contribute a significant part to the W sputtering. Discharges run in the upper W coated divertor do not show higher W concentrations than comparable discharges in the lower C based divertor. According to impurity transport calculations no strong high-Z accumulation is expected for the ITER standard scenario as long as the anomalous transport is at least as high as the neoclassical one.