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Entangled optical vortex links

Romero, J. and Leach, J. and Jack, B. and Dennis, M. R. and Franke-Arnold, S. and Barnett, S. M. and Padgett, M. J. (2011) Entangled optical vortex links. Physical Review Letters, 106 (10). ISSN 0031-9007

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Optical vortices are lines of phase singularity which percolate through all optical fields. We report the entanglement of linked optical vortex loops in the light produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. As measured by using a Bell inequality, this entanglement between topological features extends over macroscopic and finite volumes. The entanglement of photons in complex three-dimensional topological states suggests the possibility of entanglement of similar features in other quantum systems describable by complex scalar functions, such as superconductors, superfluids, and Bose-Einstein condensates.