Picture of smart phone in human hand

World leading smartphone and mobile technology research at Strathclyde...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by University of Strathclyde researchers, including by Strathclyde researchers from the Department of Computer & Information Sciences involved in researching exciting new applications for mobile and smartphone technology. But the transformative application of mobile technologies is also the focus of research within disciplines as diverse as Electronic & Electrical Engineering, Marketing, Human Resource Management and Biomedical Enginering, among others.

Explore Strathclyde's Open Access research on smartphone technology now...

The interaction of chromium (VI) with macrophages : Depletion of glutathione and inhibition of glutathione reductase

Lalaouni, A. and Henderson, C.J. and Kupper, C. and Grant, M.H. (2007) The interaction of chromium (VI) with macrophages : Depletion of glutathione and inhibition of glutathione reductase. Toxicology, 236 (1-2). pp. 76-81. ISSN 0300-483X

Full text not available in this repository. (Request a copy from the Strathclyde author)

Abstract

There are reports of alterations in the number and functions of the cells of the immune system in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) orthopaedic implants. These effects have been correlated with elevated chromium levels in the patients' blood. We have investigated the interactions of clinically relevant concentrations of Cr VI with macrophages in vitro, and the mechanisms responsible for its toxicity. Cr VI causes a concentration dependent decrease in macrophage viability above 1 microM as measured by the MTT and Neutral Red assays. This falls well within the range of circulating chromium serum concentrations measured in patients with MOM. Intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels fall as a result, and most of the loss (86%) is accounted for by oxidation to the dimer, GSSG. Prior depletion of GSH does not sensitise the cells to Cr VI toxicity, implying that it is not involved in protecting the cells against the effects of Cr VI. During the metabolism of Cr VI, glutathione reductase activity is inhibited. In contrast, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase are not significantly altered. Prior inhibition of glutathione reductase activity protects against the toxicity of Cr VI to a significant extent, suggesting that it reduces Cr VI to a toxic metabolite.