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Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes

Khokhar, A.Z and Parsons, K. and Hubbard, G. and Rahman, F. and MacIntyre, D.S. and Xiong, C. and Massoubre, D. and Gong, Z. and Johnson, N.P. and De La Rue, R.M. and Watson, I.M. and Gu, E. and Dawson, M.D. and Abbott, S.J. and Charlton, M.D.B and Tillin, M. (2010) Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes. Microelectronic Engineering, 87 (11). pp. 2200-2207. ISSN 0167-9317

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Abstract

We describe a comparison of nanofabrication technologies for the fabrication of 2D photonic crystal structures on GaN/InGaN blue LEDs. Such devices exhibit enhanced brightness and the possibility of controlling the angular emission profile of emitted light. This paper describes three nano lithography techniques for patterning photonic crystal structures on the emitting faces of LEDs: direct-write electron beam lithography, hard stamp nanoimprint lithography and soft-stamp nanoimprint lithography with disposable embossing masters. In each case we describe variations on the technique as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Complete process details have been given for all three techniques. In addition, we show how high performance GaN dry etch techniques, coupled with optical process monitoring can transfer resist patterns into underlying GaN material with high fidelity.