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Fabrication and tuning of nanoscale metallic ring and split-ring arrays

Sheridan, A.K. and Clark, A.W. and Glidle, A. and Cooper, J.M. and Cumming, D.R.S. (2007) Fabrication and tuning of nanoscale metallic ring and split-ring arrays. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, 25 (6). pp. 2628-2631. ISSN 1071-1023

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Metallic structures with dimensions smaller than the wavelength of light demonstrate optical properties which depend strongly on the nanoparticle size, shape, and interparticle spacing. The optical properties are caused by the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances that lead to strong enhancement and confinement of the optical field and can be exploited for many applications including surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, near-field scanning optical microscopy, and negative refractive index materials. In order to fully exploit the properties of these structures, both a highly reproducible and flexible fabrication technique and an in-depth understanding of the optical properties are needed. In this article, the authors demonstrate the fabrication of arrays of gold rings and split rings on glass using electron beam lithography. Electron beam lithography allows not only precise control of the size, shape, and spacing of the arrays but also the scope to design novel shapes at will. We characterize these arrays using polarization dependent spectroscopy. The structures can support multiple plasmon resonances, demonstrating that excellent uniformity across the array is achieved. These resonances are further characterized using a finite difference time domain method to model the electric field distribution around the ring structures.