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Quantum-fluid description of the free-electron laser

Bonifacio, R. and Piovella, N. and Robb, G.R.M. and Serbeto, A. (2009) Quantum-fluid description of the free-electron laser. Physical Review A, 79 (1). 015801. ISSN 1094-1622

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Using the Madelung transformation we show that in a quantum free-electron laser the beam obeys the equations of a quantum fluid in which the potential is the classical potential plus a quantum potential. The classical limit is shown explicitly.