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On the extraction, ordering, and usage of landmarks in planning

Porteous, Julie and Sebastia, Laura and Hoffmann, Jorg (2001) On the extraction, ordering, and usage of landmarks in planning. In: 6th European Conference on Planning, 2001-09-12 - 2016-07-14.

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Many known planning tasks have inherent constraints concerning the best order in which to achieve the goals. A number of research efforts have been made to detect such constraints and use them for guiding search, in the hope to speed up the planning process. We go beyond the previous approaches by dening ordering constraints not only over the (top level) goals, but also over the sub-goals that will arise during planning. Landmarks are facts that must be true at some point in every valid solution plan. We show how such landmarks can be found, how their inherent ordering constraints can be approximated, and how this information can be used to decompose a given planning task into severa smaller sub-tasks. Our methodology is completely domain- and planner-independent. The implementation demonstrates that the approach can yield significant performance improvements in both heuristic forward search and GRAPHPLAN-style planning.