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Binding to the high-affinity M-type receptor for secreted phospholipases A(2) is not obligatory for the presynaptic neurotoxicity of ammodytoxin A

Prijatelj, Petra and Vardjan, Nina and Rowan, E.G. and Krizaj, Igor and Pungercar, Joze (2006) Binding to the high-affinity M-type receptor for secreted phospholipases A(2) is not obligatory for the presynaptic neurotoxicity of ammodytoxin A. Biochimie, 88 (10). pp. 1425-1433. ISSN 0300-9084

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R180, isolated from porcine brain cortex, is a high-affinity membrane receptor for ammodytoxin A (AtxA), a secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) and presynaptically active neurotoxin from venom of the long-nosed viper (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes). As a member of the M-type sPLA(2) receptors, present on the mammalian plasma membrane, R180 has been proposed to be responsible for one of the first events in the process of presynaptic neurotoxicity, the binding of the toxin to the nerve cell. To test this hypothesis, we prepared and analyzed three N-terminal fusion proteins of AtxA possessing a 12 or 5 amino acid residue peptide. The presence of such an additional "propeptide" prevented interaction of the toxin with the M-type receptor but not its lethality in mouse and neurotoxic effects on a mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation. In addition, antibodies raised against the sPLA(2)-binding C-type lectin-like domain 5 of the M-type sPLA(2) receptor were unable to abolish the neurotoxic action of AtxA on the neuromuscular preparation. The specific enymatic activities of the fusion AtxAs were two to three orders of magnitude lower from that of the wild type, yet resulting in a similar but less pronounced neurotoxic profile on the neuromuscular junction. This is in accordance with other data showing that a minimal enzymatic activity suffices for presynaptic toxicity of sPLA(2)s to occur. Our results indicate that the interaction of AtxA with the M-type sPLA(2) receptor at the plasma membrane is not essential for presynaptic activity of the toxin. Interaction of AtxA with two intracellular proteins, calmodulin and the R25 receptor, was affected but not prevented by the presence of the N-terminal fusion peptides, implying that these proteins may play a role in the sPLA(2) neurotoxicity.