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Oxygen indicators and intelligent inks for packaging food

Mills, A. (2005) Oxygen indicators and intelligent inks for packaging food. Chemical Society Reviews, 34 (12). pp. 1003-1011. ISSN 0306-0012

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The detection of oxygen using optical sensors is of increasing interest, especially in modified atmosphere food packaging (MAP), in which the package, usually containing food, is flushed with a gas, such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. This tutorial review examines the ideal properties of an oxygen optical sensor for MAP and compares them with those developed to date, including the most recent advances. The basic technologies underpinning the different indicator types are described, examples given and their potential for application in MAP assessed. This tutorial review should be of interest to the MAP industry and researchers in optical sensors and oxygen sensing.