Picture of a sphere with binary code

Making Strathclyde research discoverable to the world...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde research outputs. It exposes Strathclyde's world leading Open Access research to many of the world's leading resource discovery tools, and from there onto the screens of researchers around the world.

Explore Strathclyde Open Access research content

An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin

Abbott, B.P. and Abbott, R. and Acernese, F. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Alshourbagy, M. and Lockerbie, N.A. and , LIGO Scientific Collaboration and , Virgo Collaboration (2009) An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin. Nature, 460 (7258). pp. 990-994. ISSN 0028-0836

Full text not available in this repository. (Request a copy from the Strathclyde author)


A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations1. Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger than one minute. Here we report limits on the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from a two-year science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory2 (LIGO). Our result constrains the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe, in the frequency band around 100 Hz, to be <6.9 10-6 at 95% confidence. The data rule out models of early Universe evolution with relatively large equation-of-state parameter3, as well as cosmic (super)string models with relatively small string tension4 that are favoured in some string theory models5. This search for the stochastic background improves on the indirect limits from Big Bang nucleosynthesis1, 6 and cosmic microwave background7 at 100 Hz.