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English Catholic Particularism in Piety and Politics

Heimann, Mary (2002) English Catholic Particularism in Piety and Politics. In: The Black International: L'Internationale noire 1870-1878. Kadoc Studies, 29 . Leuven University Press, pp. 447-463. ISBN 905867200x

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Outlines the history of the Black International, a secret organisation, directly linked to the Vatican, which brought together the leaders of the Catholic committees in nine European countries. The organisation tried to stem the tide of liberalism, socialism and nationalism that threatened the Catholic Church at the end of the 19th century.