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Communicability and multipartite structures in complex networks at negative absolute temperatures

Estrada, Ernesto and Higham, Desmond J. and Hatano, Naomichi (2008) Communicability and multipartite structures in complex networks at negative absolute temperatures. Physical Review E, 78 (2). ISSN 1539-3755

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We here present a method of clearly identifying multipartite subgraphs in a network. The method is based on a recently introduced concept of the communicability, which very clearly identifies communities in a complex network. We here show that, while the communicability at a positive temperature is useful in identifying communities, the communicability at a negative temperature is useful in identifying multipartite subgraphs; the latter quantity between two nodes is positive when the two nodes belong to the same subgraph and is negative when they do not. The method is able to discover 'almost' multipartite structures, where intercommunity connections vastly outweigh intracommunity connections. We illustrate the relevance of this work to real-life food web and protein-protein interaction networks.