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The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the Physical Activity for Health Group based within the School of Psychological Sciences & Health. Research here seeks to better understand how and why physical activity improves health, gain a better understanding of the amount, intensity, and type of physical activity needed for health benefits, and evaluate the effect of interventions to promote physical activity.

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Multi-objective planning of distributed energy resources: A review of the state-of-the-art

Alarcon-Rodriguez, Arturo and Galloway, S. and Ault, G.W. (2010) Multi-objective planning of distributed energy resources: A review of the state-of-the-art. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14 (5). pp. 1353-1366. ISSN 1364-0321

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The use of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) has been proposed as one of the possible solutions to today's energy and environmental challenges. The optimal integration of DER in distribution networks is essential to guarantee the best of resource, i.e. maximize their benefits, such as reduction of carbon emissions, reduction of network energy losses and to minimize the negative impacts, which can affect the network quality, cause network sterilization and increase investment and operation costs. Hence, DER planning is a multi-objective problem in which many objectives of interest, sometimes conflicting, need to be optimized simultaneously, and where a compromise for different perspectives (DER developer, Distribution System Operator, regulator) needs to be found. Appropriate multi-objective planning methods that consider technical, environmental and economic impacts of DER integration, and that are able to support a suitable model of stochastic DER and active networks, can provide a deep insight into the case specific and general advantages and drawbacks of DER. Consequently, the interest in multi-objective DER planning has increased in recent years, and a number of novel methods have been proposed in this area. This paper provides a timely review of the state-of-the-art in multi-objective DER planning, and discusses in detail the challenges, trends and latest developments in this field.