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Returnability in complex directed networks (digraphs)

Estrada, E. and Hatano, N. (2009) Returnability in complex directed networks (digraphs). Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 490. pp. 1886-1896. ISSN 0024-3795

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The concept of returnability is proposed for complex directed networks (digraphs). It can be seen as a generalization of the concept of reciprocity. Two measures of the returnability are introduced. We establish closed formulas for the calculation of the returnability measures, which are also related to the digraph spectrum. The two measures are calculated for simple examples of digraphs as well as for real-world complex directed networks and are compared with the reciprocity.