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Effective and efficient breakwater design for trading vessels and FPSOS

Varyani, K. and Hodgson, T. and Pham, X.P. (2008) Effective and efficient breakwater design for trading vessels and FPSOS. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 130 (2). pp. 1-7. ISSN 0892-7219

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Breakwaters obviously need to fulfill their function (protecting sensitive structures or cargo) while at the same time remaining intact and imposing manageable loads onto supporting structure. It goes without saying that such breakwaters should be cost effective, so that complex designs with extensive welding may not be preferable. In this paper the authors discuss green water loading on breakwaters for trading vessels like container ships which have forward speed and FPSOs which have zero speed. Different generic designs of V shape, vane type, double skin with and without holes, and forward sloping forecastle (whaleback deck) breakwaters applied to trading vessels are discussed. Guidelines for modeling green water horizontal loading on breakwaters of FPSOs and trading vessels using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are provided. The paper will also include a review of breakwater design criteria in rules and regulations.