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The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde's Open Access research outputs. Strathprints provides access to thousands of Open Access research papers by University of Strathclyde researchers, including by researchers from the Department of Computer & Information Sciences involved in mathematically structured programming, similarity and metric search, computer security, software systems, combinatronics and digital health.

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Matrix effects on flavour volatiles release in dark chocolates varying in particle size distribution and fat content using GC-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry

Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene and Paterson, A. and Fowler, Mark and Ryan, Angela (2009) Matrix effects on flavour volatiles release in dark chocolates varying in particle size distribution and fat content using GC-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry. Food Chemistry, 113 (1). pp. 208-215. ISSN 0308-8146

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Influences of matrix particle size distribution (PSD) (18, 25, 35 and 50 μm) and fat content (25%, 30% and 35%) on flavour release of dark chocolate volatiles were quantified by static headspace gas chromatography using GC-MS. Sixty-eight (68) flavour compounds were identified, comprising alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans, pyrans, pyrazines, pyridines, pyroles, phenols, pyrones and thiozoles. From GC-olfactometry, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal had chocolate notes. With cocoa/roasted/nutty notes were trimethyl-, tetramethyl-, 2,3-dimethyl-, 2,5-dimethyl-, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethyl- and 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine and furfuralpyrrole. Compounds with fruity/floral notes included 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol and 5-ethenyltetrahydro-R,R,5-trimethyl-cis-2-furanmethanol. Caramel-like, sweet and honey notes were conferred by 2-phenylethanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenylethylacetate, 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine, 2-carboxaldehyde-1H-pyrrole, furancarboxaldehyde, furfuryl alcohol and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)furanone. There were direct relationships of fat content with 3-methylbutanal and branched pyrazines but inverse ones with 2-phenylethanol, furfuryl alcohol, methylpyrazine, phenylacetaldehyde, 2, 3, 5-trimethyl-6-ethylpyrazine and 2-carboxaldehyde-1-H-pyrrole. Particle size influenced higher alcohol, aldehyde, ester, ketone and pyrazine concentrations at all fat contents. A multivariate product space suggested flavour effects of the interacting factors.