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Environmental and seasonal influences on red raspberry anthocyanin antioxidant contents and identification of quantitative traits loci (QTL)

Kassim, Angzzas and Poette, Julie and Paterson, A. and Zait, Dzeti and McCallum, Susan and Woodhead, Mary and Smith, Kay and Hackett, Christine and Graham, Julie (2009) Environmental and seasonal influences on red raspberry anthocyanin antioxidant contents and identification of quantitative traits loci (QTL). Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 53 (5). pp. 625-634. ISSN 1613-4125

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Abstract

Consumption of raspberries promotes human health through intake of pharmaceutically active antioxidants, including cyanidin and pelargonidin anthocyanins; products of flavonoid metabolism and also pigments conferring colour to fruit. Raspberry anthocyanin contents could be enhanced for nutritional health and quality benefits utilising DNA polymorphisms in modern marker assisted breeding. The objective was to elucidate factors determing anthocyanin production in these fruits. HPLC quantified eight anthocyanin cyanidin and pelargonidin glycosides: -3-sophoroside, -3-glucoside, -3-rutinoside and -3-glucosylrutinoside across two seasons and two environments in progeny from a cross between two Rubus subspecies, Rubus idaeus (cv. Glen Moy)×Rubus strigosus (cv. Latham). Significant seasonal variation was detected across pigments less for different growing environments within seasons. Eight antioxidants mapped to the same chromosome region on linkage group (LG) 1, across both years and from fruits grown in field and under protected cultivation. Seven antioxidants also mapped to a region on LG 4 across years and for both growing sites. A chalcone synthase (PKS 1) gene sequence mapped to LG 7 but did not underlie the anthocyanin quantitative traits loci (QTL) identified. Other candidate genes including basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH), NAM/CUC2-like protein and bZIP transcription factor underlying the mapped anthocyanins were identified.