Picture of wind turbine against blue sky

Open Access research with a real impact...

The Strathprints institutional repository is a digital archive of University of Strathclyde research outputs.

The Energy Systems Research Unit (ESRU) within Strathclyde's Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering is producing Open Access research that can help society deploy and optimise renewable energy systems, such as wind turbine technology.

Explore wind turbine research in Strathprints

Explore all of Strathclyde's Open Access research content

Oxidized phospholipid inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is restricted to TLR2 and TLR4 roles for cd14, lps-binding protein, and md2 as targets for specificity of inhibition

Erridge, Clett and Kennedy, S. and Spickett, C.M. and Webb, David J. (2008) Oxidized phospholipid inhibition of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is restricted to TLR2 and TLR4 roles for cd14, lps-binding protein, and md2 as targets for specificity of inhibition. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283, Issu (36). pp. 24748-24759. ISSN 0021-9258

Full text not available in this repository. (Request a copy from the Strathclyde author)

Abstract

The generation of reactive oxygen species is a central feature of inflammation that results in the oxidation of host phospholipids. Oxidized phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (OxPAPC), have been shown to inhibit signaling induced by bacterial lipopeptide or lipopolysac-charide (LPS), yet the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by OxPAPC remain incompletely understood. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which OxPAPC inhibits TLR signaling induced by diverse ligands in macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells. OxPAPC inhibited tumor necrosis factor- production, IB degradation, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and NF-B-dependent reporter activation induced by stimulants of TLR2 and TLR4 (Pam3CSK4 and LPS) but not by stimulants of other TLRs (poly(I·C), flagellin, loxoribine, single-stranded RNA, or CpG DNA) in macrophages and HEK-293 cells transfected with respective TLRs and significantly reduced inflammatory responses in mice injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with Pam3CSK4. Serum proteins, including CD14 and LPS-binding protein, were identified as key targets for the specificity of TLR inhibition as supplementation with excess serum or recombinant CD14 or LBP reversed TLR2 inhibition by OxPAPC, whereas serum accessory proteins or expression of membrane CD14 potentiated signaling via TLR2 and TLR4 but not other TLRs. Binding experiments and functional assays identified MD2 as a novel additional target of OxPAPC inhibition of LPS signaling. Synthetic phospholipid oxidation products 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleryl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine inhibited TLR2 signaling from 30 µM. Taken together, these results suggest that oxidized phospholipid-mediated inhibition of TLR signaling occurs mainly by competitive interaction with accessory proteins that interact directly with bacterial lipids to promote signaling via TLR2 or TLR4.