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Governance 'to go': domestic actors, institutions and the boundaries of the possible

Cram, L. (2001) Governance 'to go': domestic actors, institutions and the boundaries of the possible. Journal of Common Market Studies, 39 (4). pp. 595-618. ISSN 1468-5965

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How to 'bring Europe closer to the people' has long been a preoccupation of the policy-maker at the EU level and has recently been restated as a goal of the member governments in the Treaty of Nice. Currently, the Commission is addressing this issue through the White Paper on European Governance. Here, it is argued that the focus on 'governance' as a strategy for inclusion was ill founded and underestimated the likely conflict with existing 'governance' regimes at the domestic level. Moreover, the pursuit of 'heroic' Europeanism with a concomitant emergence of a sense of 'Europeanness' or a European 'identity' as advocated in the Commission's work programme for the White Paper on European Governance was misguided. Drawing on empirical research into the activities of women's organizations in Greece, Ireland and the UK, it is argued that the extent to which EU level action may