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Modulation of cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in pancreatic islet beta-cells and intestinal l-cells as targets for treating diabetes mellitus

Furman, B.L. and Pyne, N.J. (2006) Modulation of cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in pancreatic islet beta-cells and intestinal l-cells as targets for treating diabetes mellitus. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 7 (10). pp. 898-905. ISSN 1472-4472

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Abstract

Cyclic 3'5'-AMP (cAMP) is an important physiological amplifier of glucose-induced insulin secretion by the pancreatic islet beta-cell. In the beta-cell, cAMP is formed by the activity of adenylyl cyclase, especially in response to the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. cAMP may also play a similar role in regulating GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L-cells. cAMP influences many steps involved in glucose-induced insulin secretion and may be important in regulating pancreatic islet beta-cell differentiation, growth and survival. cAMP itself is rapidly degraded in the pancreatic islet beta-cell by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase enzymes. This review will discuss the possibility of targeting cAMP mechanisms in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in which insulin release in response to glucose is impaired.